Eye complications associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)

Eye complications associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. Optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and other related demyelinating disorders. It is important to recognize symptoms, which can range from blurred vision to complete loss of vision. It is common for MS patients to have their first symptom be optic neuritis. However, not everyone who has optic neuritis will go on to develop MS, but it is important to obtain proper diagnosis and treatment.

"If you or someone you know is living with MS, or has experienced an event of optic neuritis, it's essential to work closely with your physician to monitor symptoms and assess further", says Diana N. Andino, MD, Neurology at ARC Four Points. "By staying informed and proactive, individuals can improve their chances of recovering their vision and improved overall quality of life despite the challenges posed by these complications."

There are five common eye complications associated with MS: optic neuritis, nystagmus, diplopia (double vision), internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and uveitis.

  • Optic neuritis: Optic neuritis is a common eye complication in MS patients, occurring when the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain, becomes inflamed. This inflammation can cause vision loss, eye pain (especially with eye movement), and a change in color vision. MS-related optic neuritis usually affects one eye, leading to blurred vision or even blindness in severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can often help in managing the symptoms effectively.
  • Nystagmus: Nystagmus is a condition characterized by involuntary, rhythmic eye movements. MS can disrupt the neural pathways controlling eye movements, leading to this condition. People with nystagmus may have trouble focusing on objects, affecting their overall vision and balance. While nystagmus has no cure, some treatments and visual aids can help improve vision and quality of life.
  • Diplopia: Diplopia (double vision) is another eye problem commonly associated with MS. It occurs when the muscles controlling eye movement are weakened or paralyzed, causing the eyes to misalign and perceive two images of a single object. MS-related diplopia can be temporary or persistent and can significantly impact daily activities. Treatment options include prism lenses, eye exercises, or, in severe cases, surgery to realign the eye muscles.
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is a specific eye movement disorder caused by MS-related damage to the nerves that control horizontal eye movements. INO typically results in impaired horizontal gaze and difficulty moving one eye outward. This condition can affect tasks like reading and driving, making it challenging for individuals with MS. While there is no direct cure for INO, physical therapy, and specialized eye exercises may help manage the symptoms and improve eye coordination.
  • Uveitis: Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. While it can occur in anyone, individuals with MS have a slightly higher risk of developing uveitis. This condition can cause eye redness, pain, light sensitivity, and blurred vision. Prompt medical intervention, often with corticosteroid eye drops, is essential to reduce inflammation and prevent complications like vision loss.

"Understanding these eye complications associated with MS is crucial for both patients and caregivers," says Dr. Andino. "Regular eye check-ups, early symptom recognition, and timely medical intervention are vital in managing these complications effectively."

Make an appointment

If you or someone you know is experiencing any of these symptoms, seeking prompt medical attention is crucial for timely diagnosis and intervention.

You can make an appointment online with an ARC Neurologist with ARC MyChart or by visiting the ARC Neurology web page to find the ARC Clinic closest to you.

Tags: Multiple sclerosis (MS)